2021欧洲杯买球

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俄罗斯人为何是“战斗民族”?
2021-01-27 11:00:25

  

  起俄罗斯人,人们脑海中都不约而同地想起一个词:“战斗民族”。这个素以彪悍而著称的民族确实不同凡响:赤手空拳斗棕熊、台风天气开飞机……无一不显示出俄罗斯人的勇敢无畏。那么,这样的“战斗民族”究竟是怎样炼成的呢?

  独特的地理条件

  DILISHININGGUDELISHI,DUIYIGEGUOJIAMINZUXINGGEDEXINGCHENGYEJUYOUFEICHANGZHONGDADEYINGXIANG。ZHONGSUOZHOUZHI,ELUOSISHIYIGEHENGKUAYAOULIANGDAZHOUQIEDIDAWUBODEGUOJIA,ZHEIZHONGTESHUDEDILIYINSUWUBUDUIQIMINZUXINGGEDEXINGCHENGCHANSHENGYINGXIANG。ZIGUYILAI,RENLEIHUODONGDELISHIWUTAI,SHILIBUKAIYIDINGDEDILIHUANJINGDE。SUHUASHUODEHAO:YIFANGSHUITU,YANGYIFANGREN。ELUOSIZHEIGE“ZHANDOUMINZU”JIUSHIQITESHUSHUITUDECHANWU。

  ELUOSICENGZAIJIBAINIANDEDONGZHENGXITAOZHONG,BUDUANKUOZHANZIJIDELINGTU,CHENGWEIHENGKUAOUYALIANGDAZHOUDEPANGDADIGUO。JISHIJIETIYIHOU,LINGTUMIANJIWEI1707.5WANPINGFANGGONGLI,ZHANDIQIULUDIMIANJIDE11.4%,TARENGRANSHISHIJIESHANGMIANJIZUIDADEGUOJIA。ZHEIYANGYILAI,ELUOSIRENCONGXIAOJIUSHENGHUOZAIZHEIPIANLIAOKUODETUDISHANG。ELUOSIRENJUZHUDELIAOKUODIYUJUEDINGLECUGUANGHAOSHUANGSHIELUOSIRENMINZUQIZHIDETEDIAN。

  ERZHEIZHONGDILIHUANJINGHEZHEIYITEDIANYOUJUEDINGLEELUOSIRENDEYOUJIDUANQINGXIANGDEXINGGE。GUANGDADEKONGJIANJIFACHUELUOSIRENQIANGLIEDEMINZUZIHAOGANHEZIXINXIN,TAZAIZAOJIUELUOSIRENHAOFANGDEXINGGEDETONGSHIYEZISHENGLETAMENDEDAGUOYISHI。TAMENZAIBIEDEGUOJIAMIANQIANHUIYOUYIZHONGYOUYUEGAN,ZHEIZHONGGANJUEJIUSHIJUEDEZIJIDEDIPANZUIDA,ZIJIZAISHENMEFANGMIANDOUSHILAODA,FANSHIDOUXIANGYIZIWOWEIZHONGXIN。TAMENZUOSHENMEDOUYAOQIUSHISHIJIEDEYIJI,YAOZAOSHIJIESHANGZUIDADEJIANZHU,YAOZAOSHIJIESHANGZUIDADEHEQIANTINGDENG。TAMENBAZIJIDEMINZULIYIKANDEGAOYURENHEMINZUDELIYI,RENWEIZIJIJUYOUKONGQIANDEYOUSHI,CHANGCHANGJIANGZIJIDEYISHIQIANGJIAYUBIEREN,ZHUZHANGZHENGFUHENUYIQITAMINZU。ELUOSIBUDUANDUIWAIKUOZHANGKEYISHUOYESHIZHEIZHONGMINZUXINGGEDEYIZHONGTIXIAN。KEYISHUO,WUSUOGUJI、YONGMENGBIAOHAN、LUMANGQINGLV、WOXINGWOSUDEELUOSIRENZHISUOYICHENGWEI“ZHANDOUMINZU”HENDACHENGDUSHANGYESHIHUANJINGDECHANWU。

  

  征服与被征服的历史

  XIANJINDEELUOSIQIYUANYUDONGSILAFURENZAIGONGYUAN9SHIJIQIANXINGCHENGDEGULUOSIGUOJIA。TAWEIYUDONGOUPINGYUAN,SUIRANTUDILIAOKUO,DANJUYOUYIXILIEBULIMINZUFAZHANDEDUTEZIRANDILITIAOJIAN,ZHEIDUIZHENGGEELUOSILISHIDEFAZHANCHANSHENGLESHENKEDEYINGXIANG。ELUOSIDIQUDABUFENDOUCHUYUHANDAI,DUODONGTUCENG,QIHOUHANLENG,YINIANYOUBANNIANDUOBINGTIANXUEDI,ZAIZHEIZHONGHANLENGDEQIHOUTIAOJIANXIASHENGHUOLAODONGSHIFENJIANXIN,JIAZHIYUANLICHUHAIKOU,TEBIESHIBUDONGGANGCHUHAIKOU,BULIYUFAZHANDAGUIMODEJINGJIHEGUOJIMAOYI。SUIRANDILITIAOJIANELIE,DANELUOSIDEZHANLVEDIWEISHIFENZHONGYAO,TADICHUOUYADIQUZHONGXIN,SHISHIJIESANDAWENMINGDEJIAOHUICHU,XUDUOMINZUHEGUOJIADEZHONGYAOLIYIZAICIXIANGYUBINGFASHENGPENGZHUANG。

  TONGSHI,YOUYUWEIYUMINZUDAQIANXIDEZHUYAOLUXIAN,QIEQUESHAOYOULIYUFANGSHOUDETIANRANPINGZHANG,LISHISHANGDUOCIZAOSHOUBAOKUONAWEIYAREN、RIERMANREN、NUOMANREN、RUIDIANREN、LITAOWANREN、MENGGU、DADARENYIJIZHONGDUOYOUMUHANGUOHUOBULUO,BOLANGUO、AOSIMANDIGUOJIXIOUGUOJIAZAINEIDE,LAIZIBEIFANG、NANFANG、XIFANGHEDONGFANGDIRENDEBUDUANJINGONG。SIMIANQIANGDIDEWEIXIESHIELUOSIDEZHENGGELISHIJINCHENGDOUCHONGMANLEZHENGFUYUBEIZHENGFUDEJUNSHIHUODONG。WEILESHENGCUNHEDOUZHENG,GULUOSISHIDAIDEEGUOSHEHUIZHIDUDEGENBENYUANZEJIUSHIGERENWANQUANFUCONGGUOJIADELIYI,SHIXINGBANJUNSHI、BANYOUMUDESHENGHUOZHIDU,TONGSHISIMIANZHENGZHAN,YIMOUQIUGENGKAIKUO、GENGANQUANDEKONGJIANYUJIANGJIE,TEBIESHIMOUQIUDATONGCHUHAIKOU。SUIRANGERENDUIGUOJIALIYIDEFUCONGZHISHIWEILESHENGCUNERBUDEYIERWEIZHIXINGWEI,DANSHILISHISHANGDEZHONGZHONGOURANXINGYUBIRANXINGSHIELUOSIZHEIGEGUOJIABIANCHENGLEYIGEJUNSHISECAIJIQIANGDEGUOJIA。

  BEIDAZAOCHENGYIGEJUNSHISECAIJIQIANGDEGUOJIAHOU,ELUOSIZAIDUIWAIKUOZHANGFANGMIANDESUDULINGRENZASHE:GULUOSISHIQIDEDAGONGMENWEILEKONGZHI“WAXISHANGLU”SIFANGZHENGTAO,SHIJIFULUOSIDEMIANJIDUANSHIJIANCONGBUZU20WANPINGFANGGONGLIKUOZHANDAO100WANPINGFANGGONGLI。JIFULUOSISHIQIJIHUSHIQUANMINJIEBING,JUNSHIYUANZHENGZAIKEGUANSHANGYIJINGXINGCHENGQUANMINDEZHENGZHI、JUNSHI、JINGJI、WENHUAGONGSHI。SHAESHIQIDEJUNSHIKUOZHANGYIBUJINMANZUYULUDI,ERSHIZHUJIANZHUANXIANGHAIYANG、MOUQIUDATONGCHUHAIKOU,TEBIESHIBUDONGGANGCHUHAIKOU。DAOLEMOSIKEDAGONGYIFANSANSHIZHIZHENGQIJIAN,MOSIKEGONGGUOLINGTUKUODALESANBEI,XINGCHENGLEBIANJIEDONGBUYUEGUOWULAERSHANDIDAEBIHE、XIBUDAOFENLANWAN、BEIQIBEIBINGYANGHEBEIHAI、NANDAHEIHAI,MIANJIDA 280WANPINGFANGGONGLIDETONGYIDEELUOSIGUOJIA。

  BIDEYISHIZAIZHIZHENGDE30YUNIANZHONG,SHIZHONGMOUQIUDATONGCHUHAIKOU:DUOQULEYASUHAICHUHAIKOU、BOLUODEHAICHUHAIKOU、BAOKUOBAKUZAINEIDELIHAIXIAN。QIZAIWEIQIJIAN,ELUOSILINGTUMIANJIDADAO 1515.5WANPINGFANGGONGLI。YEKAJIELINNAERSHIZHIZHENGQIJIANSANCICANYUGUAFENBOLAN、TUNBINGLITAOWAN、BAIELUOSI、XIWUKELAN、KELIMIYADENGGUANGDADIQU;DATONGLEHEIHAICHUHAIKOU,SHIEGUOJIANGYUBANTUZENGJIA11GESHENG。NIGULAYISHIXIANHOUQINZHANLEZHONGGUO150DUOWANPINGFANGGONGLIDELINGTU,DUOQULEZHONGGUOBEIFANGCHUHAIKOU;XUEXINGZHENGFULEMIANJIJIN500 WANPINGFANGGONGLIDEZHONGYA。DAO19SHIJIMO,EGUOYIJINGCHENGWEIDIKUAOUYA,MIANJI2200 WANPINGFANGGONGLIDEPANGDADIGUO。RUGUOCONGJIFULUOSICHENGLIZHICHUDEBUZU20WANPINGFANGGONGLIQISUAN,ZEELUOSIDELINGTUMIANJIZAIBUDAO1100NIANDESHIJIANNEIKUOZHANGLE114BEI。ZHANGQICHIXUDEDUIWAIKUOZHANGTIGAOLEELUOSIMINZUDEZHANDOULI,SHI“ZHANDOUMINZU”MINGZHISHIGUI。

  

  尚武的社会文化

  WENHUAXINGTAISHIWANZHENGDERENDEGONGTONGTI。CONGGEREN、JIATING、BULUO、BULUOLIANMENG、MINZU、GUOJIA(HANDUOMINZUGUOJIA) HEWENHUAJIQUN(HANDUOGEGUOJIA),QIYANHUADEYINGRANZONGQUSHIYINGDANGSHIWUZHI、JINGSHENHEZHIDUDERIQUFENGFUHEWANSHAN。LISHISHANGTONGZHISILAFURENDEBULUO、MINZUDEWENHUAXINGTAIJIEGOUGUOYUDANYI,SUIRANHANYOUSHANGYE、NONGGENG、LINYE、YUYE、SHOUGONGYEDENGZAOQIZIRANJINGJISHIQIXINGTAIDEDUOGEWEIDU,DANSHIZONGTIERYAN,PIANXIANGYOUMU,TEBIESHIPIANYUJIELVE:WULUNSHILUSHANGDELVEDUOHAISHIHAISHANGDEQIANGJIE。DANGJIELVECHENGWEISHENGHUOYIBUFENDESHIHOU,ZHEIZHONGFEIZHULIUDESHENGCUNZHUANGTAIJIUYANBIANCHENGYIZHONGWENHUASHITI,JIJIELVEWENHUA。2500NIANDEDIYUANWENHUACHONGTUZAOJIULEZAOQISILAFUWENHUADEWAILAIYUBENTUJISHANGYUXIADELIANGCENGJIEGOUMOSHI。SHANGCENGJIEGOUSHIYIYOUMU、SHANGYE、HAIDAO、GUYONGBING、JUNSHIDENGXINGYESHENGHUOFANGSHIWEIZHUTIDEWAILAIWENHUAZHIRUDEZHIMINWENHUACENG,XIACENGSHIYINONGGENG、BUYU、SHOULIE、YANGFENG、SHOUGONGYEDENGXINGYEDESHENGHUOFANGSHIWEIZHUTIDEBENTUNEISHENGDEBEIZHIMINWENHUACENG。YUDADUOSHUZAOQIZIRANSHENGCHENGDEWENHUAXINGTAIBUTONG,ZAOQISILAFURENJIYIZAODAOLAIZIGEZHONGYOUMUBULUODEGONGJI。ZHEIXIEXIONGHANDEJIELVEBULUOYAOMESHOUDAOFANRONGWENHUADEJIYARUXIONGNUZHIYUZHONGGUODEHANTANGTUJINGCIDI,YAOMESHIGONGJIFANRONGDEWENHUALUGUOCIDIRUKESAZHIYULUOMA,BUTONGFANGXIANGDEJIELVEWENHUADEJINJUNLUXIANDOUYAOCHUANGUOSILAFUBULUODETUDIBINGYISILAFUDETUDIWEIGENJUDI,WANGWANGGUOXIESILAFURENYIQIJIELVE,HUOCHONGDANGFANRONGWENHUADECAICHANRULUOMADIGUODEGUYONGJUNJIANGSILAFURENZHUAZUOFULUMAIWEINULI。ZHEIZHONGSHIRENWEICAIWU、WEIGONGJUDEZUOFAJIQICANKU,ZHEIZHONGJIJUGONGJIXINGDEXINGWEI,JUYOUFANRENXING、FANWENHUA、FANWENMINGDETEXING,SHIWENHUAMENGMEISHIQIGAODENGQUNJUDONGWUDEJIBENTEXING,ZUNXUNZHERUOROUQIANGSHIDECONGLINFAZE。

  ZAICIQINGKUANGXIA,JUNSHIWENHUAXIANDEFEICHANGTUCHU。ELUOSIMINZUSUOCHUDEELIEDILIHUANJING、SUOZAOSHOUDESHUBAINIANDEJIANKUMONANYIJITONGDAZIRANYUWAIZUZHENGFUZHEDEJIANKUKANGZHENGHEJILIEBODOU,DUIELUOSIQIANGDAJUNSHILILIANG、JUNSHIZHANLVEYIJIDUTEJUNSHIWENHUADEXINGCHENGCHANSHENGLEWUBISHENKEDEYINGXIANG。ELUOSIDEQIANGDAJUNSHISHILIHEFUYOUTESEDEJUNSHIWENHUAZHENGSHIZAITONGZHEIXIEQIANGDIDEJIANKUKANGZHENGHEDUOCIFANFUCHONGTUZHONGXINGCHENGHEFAZHANQILAIDE。YEXINBOBODETONGZHIZHEBUDUANFADONGFENGKUANGKUOZHANGXINGDONGSHIJUNDUIBANYANLEZHONGYAOJIAOSE,QUELILEJUNDUIYOUXIANFAZHANDEDIWEI,CUJINLEJUNDUIDEJIANSHE,CHUILIANCHULEQIANGDADEJUNDUI;QIJUNSHIKUOZHANGXINGDONGZAOJIULEELUOSIDEDIGUOJINGSHEN,PEIYANGLEGUOMINZIHAOGANHEAIGUOZHUYISIXIANG;ZHENGSHIZHEIXIEYEXINTONGZHIZHEYUFENGKUANGKUOZHANGXINGDONGTIGONGLEFENGFU、SHENGDONGDEJUNSHIWENHUASUCAI,CONGERSHIELUOSIXINGCHENGLEDUTEDEJUNSHIWENHUA,ZOUSHANGLEDAGUOZHILU。

  CIWAI,ZONGJIAODUI“ZHANDOUMINZU”DELIANCHENGYEQIDAOLEYIDINGZUOYONG。GONGYUAN988NIAN,JIFUDAGONGFULAJIMIERXUANBUJIDUJIAO(DONGZHENGJIAO)WEIJIFULUOSIDEGUOJIAO,ZHAOJIJIFUSHIMINDAODINIEBOHEXIASHUISHOUXI,SHICHENG“LUOSISHOUXI”。TONGYIDEZONGJIAOCUJINGULUOSIMINZUDETONGYIHEGUOJIADEXINGCHENG。BUJINRUCI,“DISANLUOMA”YISHIGENGSHICHENGWEIELUOSIDUIWAIKUOZHANGDEZHONGYAOJINGSHENZHIZHU。ELUOSISHIBAIZHANTINGWEIDONGZHENGJIAODEZHONGXIN。1453NIAN,BAIZHANTINGBEITUERQISUOMIE。YINCI,XIUSHIFEILUOFEIYIZAIZHIDAGONGWAXILISANSHIDEXINZHONGZHICHU,“LIANGGELUOMAXIANHOUSHUAILUOLE,DISANLUOMA(MOSIKE)ZHENGYILIZHE,DISIGELUOMAZEBUHUIYOU。”WEICHENGWEIBAIZHANTINGDIGUODEHEFAJICHENGREN,YIFANSANSHIYINGQUBAIZHANTINGMODAIHUANGDIDEZHINVSUOFEIYABALIEAOLVE,BINGJIANGBAIZHANTINGDIGUODEGUOHUI——SHUANGTOUYINGYINRUEGUO。“MOSIKE-DISANLUOMA”DESIXIANGSHIZHICHENGELUOSIDUIWAIKUOZHANGDEZHONGYAOJINGSHENYUANYIN。

  DONGZHENGJIAODECHUANRUSHIELUOSIRENPUBIANJUYOU“JIUSHI”SHIMINGGAN,ZHENGSHIZHEIZHONGSUOWEIDE“SHIMINGGAN”CHENGWEIRIHOUSHAEQINLVEKUOZHANGDEZHONGYAOYISHIXINGTAIJICHU,YEWEIELUOSIJUNSHIWENHUADEXINGCHENGDIANDINGLEJINGSHENJICHU。ERELUOSIRENDEJUNSHITIANFUYUCAINENGZAIZHEIZHONGWENHUAXINGCHENGHOUDEDAOLELINLIJINZHIDEFAHUI:GONGKETUERQIYAOSAIYIZIMEIERDESUWOLUOFUYUANSHUAI、JIBAINAPOLUNDEKUTUZUOFUYUANSHUAIDENGSHIJIEJIDEELUOSIMINGJIANGZHIJINRENGRANSHENGMINGBUSHUAI;CHUANGJIAN“DAZONGSHENZUOZHANLILUN”DESULIANYUANSHUAITUHAQIEFUSIJIHESHOUCHUANG“GUOJIAHAISHANGWEILILUN”YIJI“HAISHANGCHAOBAOHEGONGJIZHANSHU”DESULIANHAIJUNYUANSHUAIGEERSHENKEFUFENBIEDAIBIAOJIXIEHUAZHANZHENGSHIDAILUJUNJUNZHONGZHANLVEHEHAIJUNJUNZHONGZHANLVEDEZUIGAOSHUIZHUN;ERLVXIANTICHU“JUNSHIJISHUGEMING”GAINIANDESULIANYUANSHUAIAOJIAERKEFUZEZAIRENLEIJUNSHISIXIANGSHISHANGKAIQILEXINXIHUAZHANZHENGDEXIANHE。

  

  强悍的身体素质

  “SHENTISHIGEMINGDEBENQIAN。”ZAIZHEIFANGMIAN,“ZHANDOUMINZU”XIANDEZIBENXIONGHOU。DONGJI,ZAIELUOSIJUMINXIAOQUZHOUWEIDELINJIANXIAOLUSHANG,JINGCHANGKANDAOTUIZHEYINGERCHESANBUDENIANQINGFUNV。JINGUANSHILINGXIAERSANSHIDUDEYANHAN,MUQINMENYERANGYINGERLUOLUCHUJIAONENDEXIAOLIAN,HUXIQINGXINDEKONGQI,RANGHAIZICONGXIAOSHIYINGHANLENGDEQIHOU。DUIDAYIDIANDEHAIZI,ZEGULITAMENQUZUOHUWAIHUODONG,TONGGUOTIYUDUANLIANPEIYANGYONGGANXINGGE。ZAIDAJIESHANG,CHANGNENGKANJIANGANGHUIZOULUDEHAIZI,LIANPAODAIDIANDIGENZAIDABULIUXINGDEMUQINSHENHOU,SHUAIDAOLEJIUZIJIPAQILAI。ZHEIZHONGSHIDAIXIANGCHUANDEXISU,SHIDEHAIZICONGXIAOJIUDAXIALIANGHAODESHENTISUZHIJICHU。ELUOSIDEYINSHIGAODANBAIGAORELIANG,JIASHANGQUANMINYUNDONGDEHAOXIGUAN,SHIQISHENTISUZHIPUBIANJIAOHAO。

  ZAIQIANSULIANSHIDAI,QIDUODELINGRENZASHEDEAOYUNJINPAIJIUSHIMINGZHENG。GUDAILUOSIRENJIUYITIGEKUIWUQIANGZHUANG,DONGZUOLINGHUOERZHUCHENG。ZAIELUOSIZHANGDA2500NIANDEZHENGFUYUBEIZHENGFUDELISHIZHONG,XUDUOYIQIANGHANZHUCHENGDEMINZUDEXUETONGRONGRUQIZHONG(BIRUNUOMANRENHEMENGGUREN),SHIQIXUEYESHIZHONGBAOCHIXINXIAN,JIASHANGZHANZHENGDEYOUSHENGLIETAI,RANGELUOSIMINZUYONGYOUQIANGJIANDETIGE。KEYISHUO,QIANGHANDETIGESHI“ZHANDOUMINZU”MINGFUQISHI。

  ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,YAOLIANJIUYIGE“ZHANDOUMINZU”BINGBUSHIYIJIANRONGYIDESHIQING。ZHENGSHIDUTEDEDILIHUANJING、YIBUCHONGMANZHENGFADELISHI、SHANGWUDESHEHUIWENHUAHEQIANGHANDETIGECHENGJIULEBEIJIXIONGXIAOYONGSHANZHANDEWEIMING。JINRI,ZHEIGE“ZHANDOUMINZU”YOUKAISHILEXINDEZHANDOU——ELUOSIPAIBINGJINRUXULIYA。ZAIZHEIGE“ZHANDOUMINZU”MIANQIAN,HEPINGXIANDEGENGJIAZHENGUI。

  

  本文刊于2015年第20期《世界博览》

 
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